It is the duty of the physician to inform the mother of the risks of a vacuum extraction delivery, as well as the alternatives. The physician must also ensure that the vacuum extractor is used appropriately and that the mother and infant are properly monitored both during and after birth. Permanent injury can occur if the physician has a poor technique or uses the wrong type of cup. There should be no twisting of the neck or head, no excessive pulling, and no pulling for longer than 10-15 minutes. Improper use of a vacuum extractor can result in the birth injuries listed below. These injuries can in turn cause hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), cerebral palsy, seizures, and brain damage.
Injuries That Can Result from Vacuum Extraction Delivery
- Brachial plexus injuries/Erb’s palsy: This occurs when the brachial plexus (group of nerves to the arms and hands) is injured. It frequently happens in births involving shoulder dystocia, which is when the baby’s shoulder gets stuck on the mother’s pelvic bone. As a result of this type of injury, the baby cannot flex and rotate the affected arm. If the nerve is torn, there may be permanent damage and arm paralysis.
- Skull fractures
- Retinal hemorrhages (bleeding in the eye)
- Fetal stroke: Inappropriate use of vacuum extractors can cause severe brain damage from brain bleeds, contusions in the brain, stretching and tearing of blood vessels and brain tissue, and compression of the brain with changes in blood flow. In addition, trauma from vacuum extractor use can cause the formation of blood clots inside blood vessels (thrombosis), which can lead to a stroke.
- Brain hemorrhages or bleeds: A serious complication of a vacuum extraction is a subgaleal brain hemorrhage. This occurs when the vacuum ruptures a vein, which bleeds into a space between the scalp and skull. This condition is life threatening with a mortality rate as high as 20%. About 90% of all subgaleal hemorrhages are related to vacuum extraction. This type of bleeding is most likely to occur with excessive force, prolonged cup application, or if forceps are also used (which is contrary to the medical standard of care). There are many types of brain hemorrhages that can occur during forceps use. This often leads to neurological impairments and cerebral palsy. Other types of brain hemorrhages include the following:
- Cerebral hemorrhage: This is a form of stroke where bleeding occurs within the brain.
- Subarachnoid hemorrhage: This is bleeding in the subarachnoid space, which is the area between the innermost of the two membranes that cover the brain. This type of hemorrhage usually occurs in full-term babies, and it can lead to seizures, lethargy, and apnea.
- Intraventricular hemorrhage: This is when there is bleeding into the brain’s ventricular system, where spinal fluid is produced. It is the most serious type of intracranial bleeding and is usually seen in premature infants and infants with low birth weight. This is because blood vessels in the brain of premature infants are not fully developed and are therefore weak.
- Subdural hemorrhage or subdural hematoma: This occurs when there is a rupture of one or more blood vessels in the subdural space, which is the area between the surface of the brain and the thin layer of tissue that separates the brain from the skull. These ruptures are usually caused from difficult deliveries. Seizures, high levels of bilirubin in the blood, rapidly enlarging head, a poor Moro reflex, or extensive retinal hemorrhages sometimes occur with these kinds of hemorrhages.
- Cephalohematoma: This is bleeding that occurs between the skull and its covering, starting as a bump on the baby’s head. It occurs a few hours after birth and lasts anywhere from 2 weeks to a few months.
Legal Help for Vacuum Extractor and Forceps Injuries
Trusted Detroit, Michigan Birth Trauma Attorneys
Children injured due to the misuse of vacuum extractors often go on to require specialized care throughout their entire lives. Therapy, special education, and assistive technology will allow your loved one to live a fuller, more equal life. If a medical professional’s error caused your loved one’s disabilities, you are likely entitled to compensation to afford these resources. We encourage you to contact Reiter & Walsh, P.C. today for a free legal consultation. During your case review, our team of birth injury attorneys, nurses, and professionals will determine if medical malpractice caused your loved one’s injuries, identify the negligent party, and inform you of your legal options.
Reiter & Walsh, P.C. is one of the only law firms in the United States exclusively handling birth injury cases. We focus solely on helping families like yours obtain the resources they need, and our niche focus allows us to win even the most medically and legally complex cases. To begin your free case review, please contact us in any of the following ways:
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