A. Yes. Neonatal seizures are seizures that occur shortly after birth or during the neonatal period. Neonatal seizures can indicate that a birth injury occurred. In fact, seizures may be the first (and perhaps only) clinical sign of a brain injury or disorder in a newborn baby. Seizures frequently develop in babies who sustained oxygen deprivation shortly before the start of labor, during labor, or in the first 24 hours of life.
What Are Seizures?
Seizures occur when there are abnormal electrical discharges in the brain (uncontrolled electrical activity) that produce conditions such as convulsions, brain disturbances, and altered consciousness. Incidents that deprive a baby’s brain of oxygen during or near the time of labor and delivery can cause a baby to have seizures after birth. When oxygen deprivation occurs, there typically is a series of events that cause a decrease in energy production in the brain. This can cause the brain to produce a chemical that causes excessive excitation in a part of the brain called the cortex. Seizures after birth can be the result of brain infections or other conditions that decrease the flow of oxygen-rich blood to the baby’s brain. Seizures after birth must be promptly diagnosed and treated; seizures are not only a sign of brain injury, but can also cause additional brain damage, thereby making an existing injury even worse.
Causes of Seizures After Birth
Conditions that occur near or during the time of labor and delivery that can cause seizures after birth may include hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), a type of brain injury caused by a lack of oxygen. HIE is the most common cause of neonatal seizures, with approximately 80% of neonatal seizure cases attributed to HIE. This fetal oxygen deprivation can be due to decreased oxygen in the baby’s blood (hypoxemia or hypoxia) and/or decreased blood flow (ischemia) to the brain. Conditions that can cause HIE and seizures after birth include:
- Untreated maternal high blood pressure (preeclampsia): Preeclampsia is particularly dangerous because it restricts vessels that bring blood to the baby, thereby decreasing the amount of oxygen-rich blood that reaches the fetus.
- Umbilical cord injuries: Any umbilical cord complication can seriously hinder the ability of oxygen-rich blood that reaches the baby. The umbilical cord is the baby’s lifeline to the mother. When blood is unable to travel through the cord, an unborn baby will not be able to receive oxygen. Umbilical cord injuries and complications include the following (among other problems):
- Nuchal cord: A complication in which the cord wraps around the baby’s neck.
- Umbilical cord prolapse: A complication in which the cord exits in front of the baby and gets compressed in the birth canal.
- Cord compression: A complication in which the umbilical cord is compressed by pressure that decreases or obstructs the flow of blood, oxygen, and nutrients to the baby. This could be due to nuchal cord, cord prolapse, or another issue.
- Uterine or placental complications: Problems with the placenta or uterus may include placenta previa, placental abruption, placental insufficiency, and ruptured uterus. Oxygen-rich blood travels from the mother, through the uterus and placenta, to the umbilical cord and baby. If anything prevents blood from either flowing into or out of the placenta, the supply of oxygen-rich blood going to the baby will be decreased.
- Tachysystole (excessively frequent uterine contractions): These types of contractions can be caused by the labor induction drugs Pitocin or Cytotec. These drugs sometimes make contractions so strong and fast that there is essentially one continuous contraction that is constantly impinging on or compressing vessels in the uterus (womb) and placenta. These vessels bring blood to the baby through the umbilical cord. With constant pressure on the vessels, the supply of oxygen-rich blood that travels to the baby can be severely reduced.
- Complications related to the baby’s size or position may include breech presentation, cephalopelvic disproportion (baby’s head or body is too large to pass through the mother’s pelvis or birth canal), or macrosomia (the baby is larger than average).
- Hemorrhages (bleeds) in the baby’s brain: Brain bleeds occurring during labor and delivery can deprive a baby’s brain of oxygen-rich blood.
- Improper use of delivery instruments such as forceps or a vacuum extractors: These instruments increase the risk of brain bleeds in the baby.
- Delayed delivery of the baby and delayed emergency C-section: If the baby is experiencing fetal oxygen deprivation, physicians must deliver the baby immediately. Failure to deliver a fetus in distress can cause permanent brain damage and HIE.
- Prolonged second stage of labor: The second stage of labor occurs from the time the mother is fully dilated until the baby is delivered. When this time lasts more than four hours, it is considered to be a prolonged second stage. A prolonged second stage is most often associated with cephalopelvic disproportion. A C-section should be performed to minimize the risks of traumatic brain injury and HIE.
- Infection: The most common infections occurring in newborns that can cause seizures are meningitis, Group B Streptococcus, encephalitis, cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus. While infants may become infected after delivery, the most common cause of neonatal infection is an undetected and untreated infection in the mother that is transmitted to the baby through the birth canal. It is the physician’s responsibility to screen for various infections during the pregnancy and appropriately treat the infections.
- Kernicterus: There is a byproduct of red blood cell breakdown called bilirubin, which is something that all people naturally have in their bodies. Sometimes, babies have a difficult time getting rid of bilirubin, and when too much builds up in their blood, it causes jaundice. When jaundice becomes severe, there is a high chance that the bilirubin can travel to the baby’s brain. Bilirubin is toxic to brain tissue, and when it enters the tissue, a dangerous condition called kernicterus occurs. Kernicterus is a type of brain injury that can cause cerebral palsy and seizures after birth.
Types of Seizures
Seizures in newborns are categorized as subtle, clonic, tonic, or myoclonic:
- Subtle seizures: Subtle seizures are often difficult to see. This type of seizure comprises about 50% of all newborn seizures. There may be some bicycling-type movement, fixation of gaze, or repetitive facial movements when a baby has this type of seizure disorder.
- Clonic seizures: Clonic seizures in infants are marked by a slow rhythmic jerking of one part of the body. This type of seizure represents about 25% of all seizures in newborns.
- Myoclonic seizures: Myoclonic seizures involve rapid twitching or jerking movements and are the most serious, often indicating severe brain damage.
- Tonic seizures: Tonic seizures account for about 5% of infants with seizures and cause sustained contractions. Sometimes the eyes may roll upward and breathing may stop for a period of time.
Diagnosing Seizures After Birth
The primary diagnostic test for verifying seizure activity and determining the location of the brain affected is an EEG. When an EEG is performed, electrodes are attached to the baby’s head. The electrodes read the electrical activity of the brain and show the changes that occur over time. The results appear on-screen as well as on printed strips.
Seizures After Birth Combined With Other Signs Can Be Cause for Concern
Seizures after birth are one sign that a birth injury may have potentially occurred, but are not the only sign. If the following signs occur in conjunction with seizures after birth, it may be a cause for concern and warrant further investigation:
- The baby is pale or blue in color after delivery
- The baby has trouble breathing after delivery
- The baby’s heart rate is abnormal around the time of birth
- The baby requires resuscitation to help with breathing or heart rate
- The baby has a low Apgar score at one minute and/or at 5 minutes after birth
- The baby has an umbilical cord blood gas reading that is abnormal
- The baby is sluggish or lethargic
- The baby has difficulty with or no interest in feeding
- The baby has odd movements in the face, arms or legs
- The baby favors one side of the body
Do I Have a Neonatal Seizure Case?
In order to avoid seizures after birth, all medical personnel must strictly follow standards of care. A mother and baby must be closely monitored during labor and delivery, and proper prenatal testing must be performed in order to avoid the conditions causing seizures after birth, such as HIE and infection. Failure to properly monitor a mother and baby and to follow standards of care is medical negligence. If a physician fails to recognize signs that a baby is having or is likely to have seizures after birth, and the seizures and their underlying causes go untreated, it is medical malpractice.
If your child was diagnosed with HIE and/or seizures after birth, a review of the medical records can determine whether negligence played a role in causing the injury. The award-winning birth injury attorneys at Reiter & Walsh ABC Law Centers have experience in handling birth injury and seizure cases for clients throughout the nation. Our birth injury attorneys understand the complex issues involved with seizure cases and will help you obtain the compensation you deserve. To begin your free legal consultation, please reach out to our legal team in whichever way best suits your needs:
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