Entries by Paula Urban

Topographical Classification of Cerebral Palsy

The topographical classification of cerebral palsy (CP) is used to describe the body parts that are affected by the condition. Doctors commonly use this terminology to diagnose and explain where motor difficulties take place on the body.  Key terms Each topographical classification includes a prefix that shows the number of areas affected, and a suffix…

New Study Suggests Benefits of Intranasal Breast Milk in Cases of Intraventricular Hemorrhage

A recent Scary Mommy article put a November 2018 study in the spotlight regarding  the benefits of intranasal breast milk administration in infants with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) (1,2).  What is intraventricular hemorrhage? Intraventricular hemorrhages, or brain bleeds, happen when there is bleeding within the brain’s ventricular system. IVH can result from oxygen deprivation at birth…

Recent stories of police brutality against individuals with disabilities demonstrate need for change in training programs

Individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (I/DDs), cerebral palsy (CP), hearing and vision difficulties, and other disabilities can struggle with communication. They may have difficulties with problem-solving skills. They can also have difficulty following rules and obeying laws (1). They may struggle with interpersonal relationships, social responsibility, and general social skills. Or they may just…

Comparing Cerebral Palsy to Other Motor Disorders

Nervous system conditions that affect an individual’s movements are called “motor disorders.” They can result in increased voluntary or involuntary movements, as well as faster or slower movements (1). Many motor disorders can have similar signs and symptoms, even though they are caused by different underlying conditions or diseases. Cerebral palsy (CP) is a movement…

Mixed Cerebral Palsy

Cerebral palsy (CP) exists in a variety of different forms, and its symptoms vary significantly from person to person. For instance, while people with severe CP may need a wheelchair to help them get around, people with mild CP might be able to walk just fine on their own (1). All people with CP experience…

Fast Facts about Primitive Reflexes

Primitive reflexes are involuntary natural movements found in newborns. They can be spontaneous movements or reactions to certain stimuli. Primitive reflexes can occur in different periods of infant development. Primitive reflexes include (1, 2, 3): Tonic neck reflex: When a baby’s head turns to one side, their arm on that side will stretch out and…

Communication Function Classification System for CP

The Communication Function Classification System, or CFCS, is a classification tool used to describe the everyday communication performance of an individual with cerebral palsy (CP). It utilizes the World Health Organization’s (WHO) International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) (1). It is not a test to see how well a person with CP can…

Compound presentation

Compound presentation occurs when the part of the fetus closest to the birth canal (usually the head) presents with an extremity next to it (usually hand or arm) (1). It has been estimated to affect less than 0.004% of pregnancies. What are the causes of compound presentation?  Compound presentation can occur as a result of…

Thyroid issues during pregnancy

The thyroid is a small gland in the neck that produces thyroid hormones, which affect heart rate and metabolism.  A thyroid disorder occurs when the thyroid makes too much or too little of certain thyroid hormones (1).  Hyperthyroidism: This condition occurs when the thyroid is overactive, or makes too much thyroid hormone. It can cause…